An endoscope is inserted into the uterine cavity through cervix. The uterine cavity is distended by normal saline for its proper visualization. The hysteroscope is attached with light source and video camera which helps in receiving the enlarged, magnified view and recording of the findings. Some surgical procedures like removal of polyp, septum, sub-mucus fibroid, or endometrial biopsy can be performed hysteroscopically.

Diagnostic hysteroscopy:

Thorough examination of uterine cavity is done to evaluate size & shape of uterine cavity, endometrial linings and both tubal ostea. It is indicated in evaluation of infertility and some cases of excessive menstruation and postmenopausal bleeding. Endometrial biopsy can be taken of any suspicious lesion.

Endometrial polyp:

It is abnormal growth of endometrial or myometrial tissue inside the uterine cavity which may lead to dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia or abnormal bleeding pattern or infertility.
These polyps can be removed hysteroscopically or under hysteroscopic guidance and material is sent for histopathological examination for confirmation of its nature (benign/malignant).

Uterine septum:

It is a type of developmental anomaly of uterus with presence of midline thick band of tissue (septum) which divides the endometrial cavity into two parts. It may give rise to problem of recurrent pregnancy loss or infertility.
Septum can be cut using scissors or electro cautery under hysteroscopic guidance.

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