Urology is a branch of medical science which deals with the diseases of Kidney, Urinary bladder, Prostate gland, Testis and Penis. It deals with the diseases like Urinary tract infections, Male sexual dysfunction and male infertility. It also deals with the tumors of Kidney, Ureter, Bladder, Prostate, Testis and Penis. Congenital anomalies of genitourinary tract like plevic ureteric junction obstruction, vesico ureteric reflux, posterior urethral valves etc are taken care off. Various voiding dysfunction are also treated under this specialty. Urology also deals with the Kidney transplantation.
There has been renewed interest in the use of lasers for minimally invasive treatment of urologic diseases in recent years. Various kinds of lasers are available in the market. Holmium laser is one of the most versatile surgical lasers currently available in the armamentarium of the urologist.
Now Shalby hospital is equipped with 100 watt Holmium laser, one of the most powerful lasers available.
Holmium laser provides standard of care for urological diseases like
Urology is a vast branch which has sub divisions like
Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with minimally invasive surgical procedures. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small endoscopes and instruments inserted into the urinary tract. Transurethral surgery has been the cornerstone of endourology. Most of the urinary tract can be reached via the urethra, enabling prostate surgery, surgery of tumors of the urothelium, stone surgery, and simple urethral and ureteral procedures.
Laparoscopy is a rapidly evolving branch of urology and has replaced some open surgical procedures. Robot-assisted surgery of the prostate, kidney, and ureter has been expanding in this field. Today, most of the radical prostatectomies in the United States are carried out by robotic assistance. Today laparoscopic nephrectomy, prostatectomy, pyeloplasty are well established procedures in the field of urology.
Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles, and penis. The medical treatment of advanced genitourinary cancer is managed by either an urologist or an oncologist depending on the cancer.
Neuro-urology concerns nervous system control of the genitourinary system, and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence, detrusor over activity, urinary retention, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Urodynamic studies play an important diagnostic role in neuro urology. Therapy for nervous system disorders includes clean intermittent self-catheterization of the bladder, antiholinergic drugs, injection of Botulinum toxin into the bladder wall and advanced and less commonly used therapies such as sacral neuromodulation. Less marked neurological abnormalities can cause urological disorders as well—for example, abnormalities of the sensory nervous system are thought by many researchers to play a role in disorders of painful or frequent urination (e.g. painful bladder syndrome, formerly known as interstitial cystitis).
Pediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often an endocrinological problem), and vesicoureteral reflux. It also deals with pediatric stone diseases which are now managed endoscopically.
Andrology focuses on the male reproductive system. It is mainly concerned with male infertility, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. Since male sexuality is largely controlled by hormones, andrology overlaps with endocrinology. Surgery in this field includes fertilization procedures, vasectomy reversals, and the implantation of penile prostheses. Vasectomies may also be included here, although most urologists perform this procedure.
Reconstructive urology is a highly specialized field of urology that restores function to any of various structures of the genitourinary tract. It deals with congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract like pelvic ureteric junction obstruction, vesico ureteric reflux, urethral stricture disease any reconstruction of genitourinary tract post trauma.
Urogynecology is a branch which deals with female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence and other voiding dysfunction in the females. It also covers the various fistulas like vesico vaginal, uretero vaginal and urethro vaginal fistulas. Thorough knowledge of the female pelvic floor together with urodynamic skills is necessary to diagnose and treat these disorders. Depending on the cause of the individual problem, a medical or surgical treatment can be the solution.
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